India Country File

Understand the basics of India's geography, history, economy and politics at a glance…

The Republic of India is the second-most populous nation on the planet, and also the world’s largest democracy. It has an estimated population of 1.21 billion people. By area, it is the seventh largest country in the world. It is situated in southern Asia, in an area known as the Indian sub-continent. It shares borders with China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar (Burma) and Bhutan.

Laws are administered at both federal and state level (of which there are 28). Hindi is the official language, but there are dozens of local languages in use too, and English is commonly spoken. Hinduism is the main religion. The national capital is New Delhi.